It might seem obvious, and yet today a significant proportion of oncology drug discovery and development is still done in cell lines organoids and animal models rather than in fresh patient tumor tissue. The challenge comes when trying to translate what has been seen in standard models into the clinical environment with patients. Every model…

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Over the last decade, many have sought to build on the discovery that tumor cells dissociated and separated from primary tumors could be propagated in vitro using various “patterning” factors such as growth factors in a 3D artificial matrix, in order to self-organise into 3D structures known as “organoids” owing to their abilities to self-renew…

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